Ari Molofsky, MD, PhD

Associate Professor
Laboratory Medicine

Dr. Ari Molofsky is an Associate Professor at UCSF in the Department of Laboratory Medicine. Trained as a MD/PhD with a clinical specialization in hematopathology, his primary focus is leading a basic research laboratory that works at the intersection of immunology and tissue homeostasis and pathology. Dr. Molofsky uses foundation models to study organ development and remodeling, with a particular focus on stromal - immune niches, with studies that span brain, lung, liver, adipose tissue, skin, and intestine. Dr. Ari Molofsky is also an affiliate member of the UCSF Microbiology and Immunology Department, ImmunoX Program, Liver Center, Pulmonary Research Group, NeuroImmunology Center for Excellence, and the UCSF Diabetes Center.


Interstitial macrophage phenotypes in Schistosoma-induced pulmonary hypertension.

Frontiers in immunology

Kumar R, Kumar S, Mickael C, Fonseca Balladares D, Nolan K, Lee MH, Sanders L, Nilsson J, Molofsky AB, Tuder RM, Stenmark KR, Graham BB

Type-I-interferon-responsive microglia shape cortical development and behavior.


Escoubas CC, Dorman LC, Nguyen PT, Lagares-Linares C, Nakajo H, Anderson SR, Barron JJ, Wade SD, Cuevas B, Vainchtein ID, Silva NJ, Guajardo R, Xiao Y, Lidsky PV, Wang EY, Rivera BM, Taloma SE, Kim DK, Kaminskaya E, Nakao-Inoue H, Schwer B, Arnold TD, Molofsky AB, Condello C, Andino R, Nowakowski TJ, Molofsky AV

Group 2 innate lymphoid cells constrain type 3/17 lymphocytes in shared stromal niches to restrict liver fibrosis.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology

Sbierski-Kind J, Cautivo KM, Wagner JC, Dahlgren MW, Nilsson J, Krasilnikov M, Mroz NM, Lizama CO, Gan AL, Matatia PR, Taruselli MT, Chang AA, Caryotakis S, O'Leary CE, Kotas M, Mattis AN, Peng T, Locksley RM, Molofsky AB

Group 2 innate lymphoid cells promote inhibitory synapse development and social behavior.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology

Barron JJ, Mroz NM, Taloma SE, Dahlgren MW, Ortiz-Carpena J, Dorman LC, Vainchtein ID, Escoubas CC, Molofsky AB, Molofsky AV

Dysregulated lung stroma drives emphysema exacerbation by potentiating resident lymphocytes to suppress an epithelial stem cell reservoir.


Wang C, Hyams B, Allen NC, Cautivo K, Monahan K, Zhou M, Dahlgren MW, Lizama CO, Matthay M, Wolters P, Molofsky AB, Peng T

Circumvention of luteolysis reveals parturition pathways in mice dependent upon innate type 2 immunity.


Siewiera J, McIntyre TI, Cautivo KM, Mahiddine K, Rideaux D, Molofsky AB, Erlebacher A

Microglial pattern recognition via IL-33 promotes synaptic refinement in developing corticothalamic circuits in mice.

The Journal of experimental medicine

Han RT, Vainchtein ID, Schlachetzki JCM, Cho FS, Dorman LC, Ahn E, Kim DK, Barron JJ, Nakao-Inoue H, Molofsky AB, Glass CK, Paz JT, Molofsky AV

Sentinel p16INK4a+ cells in the basement membrane form a reparative niche in the lung.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Reyes NS, Krasilnikov M, Allen NC, Lee JY, Hyams B, Zhou M, Ravishankar S, Cassandras M, Wang C, Khan I, Matatia P, Johmura Y, Molofsky A, Matthay M, Nakanishi M, Sheppard D, Campisi J, Peng T

Advancing Lung Immunology Research: An Official American Thoracic Society Workshop Report.

American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology

Rahimi RA, Cho JL, Jakubzick CV, Khader SA, Lambrecht BN, Lloyd CM, Molofsky AB, Talbot S, Bonham CA, Drake WP, Sperling AI, Singer BD

Bile acid-sensitive tuft cells regulate biliary neutrophil influx.

Science immunology

O'Leary CE, Sbierski-Kind J, Kotas ME, Wagner JC, Liang HE, Schroeder AW, de Tenorio JC, von Moltke J, Ricardo-Gonzalez RR, Eckalbar WL, Molofsky AB, Schneider C, Locksley RM

ILC2s - development, divergence, dispersal.

Current opinion in immunology

Ricardo-Gonzalez RR, Molofsky AB, Locksley RM

Interferon gamma constrains type 2 lymphocyte niche boundaries during mixed inflammation.


Cautivo KM, Matatia PR, Lizama CO, Mroz NM, Dahlgren MW, Yu X, Sbierski-Kind J, Taruselli MT, Brooks JF, Wade-Vallance A, Caryotakis SE, Chang AA, Liang HE, Zikherman J, Locksley RM, Molofsky AB

Early-life inflammation primes a T helper 2 cell-fibroblast niche in skin.


Boothby IC, Kinet MJ, Boda DP, Kwan EY, Clancy S, Cohen JN, Habrylo I, Lowe MM, Pauli M, Yates AE, Chan JD, Harris HW, Neuhaus IM, McCalmont TH, Molofsky AB, Rosenblum MD

Regulatory T-cells inhibit microglia-induced pain hypersensitivity in female mice.


Kuhn JA, Vainchtein ID, Braz J, Hamel K, Bernstein M, Craik V, Dahlgren MW, Ortiz-Carpena J, Molofsky AB, Molofsky AV, Basbaum AI

Perivascular stromal cells: Directors of tissue immune niches.

Immunological reviews

Sbierski-Kind J, Mroz N, Molofsky AB

Early Life Imprinting of a Th2-Stromal Cell Niche in Skin.

The Journal of Immunology

Ian C Boothby, Devi P Boda, Elaine Y Kwan, Jarish N Cohen, Ireneusz Habrylo, Ari B Molofsky, Michael D Rosenblum

Gli1+ mesenchymal stromal cells form a pathological niche to promote airway progenitor metaplasia in the fibrotic lung.

Nature cell biology

Cassandras M, Wang C, Kathiriya J, Tsukui T, Matatia P, Matthay M, Wolters P, Molofsky A, Sheppard D, Chapman H, Peng T

Microglial Remodeling of the Extracellular Matrix Promotes Synapse Plasticity.


Nguyen PT, Dorman LC, Pan S, Vainchtein ID, Han RT, Nakao-Inoue H, Taloma SE, Barron JJ, Molofsky AB, Kheirbek MA, Molofsky AV

Immune outposts in the adventitia: One foot in sea and one on shore.

Current opinion in immunology

Cautivo KM, Steer CA, Molofsky AB

Tissue immunity broadcasts near and far.

Nature reviews. Immunology

Molofsky AB, Locksley RM

Adventitial Cuffs: Regional Hubs for Tissue Immunity.

Trends in immunology

Dahlgren MW, Molofsky AB

Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Are Redundant in Experimental Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

Frontiers in immunology

Cameron GJM, Cautivo KM, Loering S, Jiang SH, Deshpande AV, Foster PS, McKenzie ANJ, Molofsky AB, Hansbro PM, Starkey MR

Nur77 Links Chronic Antigen Stimulation to B Cell Tolerance by Restricting the Survival of Self-Reactive B Cells in the Periphery.

Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

Tan C, Mueller JL, Noviski M, Huizar J, Lau D, Dubinin A, Molofsky A, Wilson PC, Zikherman J

Adventitial Stromal Cells Define Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell Tissue Niches.


Dahlgren MW, Jones SW, Cautivo KM, Dubinin A, Ortiz-Carpena JF, Farhat S, Yu KS, Lee K, Wang C, Molofsky AV, Tward AD, Krummel MF, Peng T, Molofsky AB

Tissue signals imprint ILC2 identity with anticipatory function.

Nature immunology

Ricardo-Gonzalez RR, Van Dyken SJ, Schneider C, Lee J, Nussbaum JC, Liang HE, Vaka D, Eckalbar WL, Molofsky AB, Erle DJ, Locksley RM

All along the watchtower: group 2 innate lymphoid cells in allergic responses.

Current opinion in immunology

Dahlgren MW, Molofsky AB

Astrocyte-derived interleukin-33 promotes microglial synapse engulfment and neural circuit development.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Vainchtein ID, Chin G, Cho FS, Kelley KW, Miller JG, Chien EC, Liddelow SA, Nguyen PT, Nakao-Inoue H, Dorman LC, Akil O, Joshita S, Barres BA, Paz JT, Molofsky AB, Molofsky AV

B Lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoma With Burkitt-like Morphology and IGH/MYC Rearrangement: Report of 3 Cases in Adult Patients.

The American journal of surgical pathology

Li Y, Gupta G, Molofsky A, Xie Y, Shihabi N, McCormick J, Jaffe ES

A tissue checkpoint regulates type 2 immunity.

Nature immunology

Van Dyken SJ, Nussbaum JC, Lee J, Molofsky AB, Liang HE, Pollack JL, Gate RE, Haliburton GE, Ye CJ, Marson A, Erle DJ, Locksley RM

Interleukin-33 and Interferon-γ Counter-Regulate Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell Activation during Immune Perturbation.


Molofsky AB, Van Gool F, Liang HE, Van Dyken SJ, Nussbaum JC, Lee J, Bluestone JA, Locksley RM

Interleukin-33 in Tissue Homeostasis, Injury, and Inflammation.


Molofsky AB, Savage AK, Locksley RM

Activated type 2 innate lymphoid cells regulate beige fat biogenesis.


Lee MW, Odegaard JI, Mukundan L, Qiu Y, Molofsky AB, Nussbaum JC, Yun K, Locksley RM, Chawla A

Interleukin-5-producing group 2 innate lymphoid cells control eosinophilia induced by interleukin-2 therapy.


Van Gool F, Molofsky AB, Morar MM, Rosenzwajg M, Liang HE, Klatzmann D, Locksley RM, Bluestone JA

Chitin activates parallel immune modules that direct distinct inflammatory responses via innate lymphoid type 2 and γδ T cells.


Van Dyken SJ, Mohapatra A, Nussbaum JC, Molofsky AB, Thornton EE, Ziegler SF, McKenzie AN, Krummel MF, Liang HE, Locksley RM

Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma, Not Otherwise Specified Presenting as Erythroderma

Pathology Case Reviews

Dawson, A.L., LeBoit, P.E., Molofsky, A.B., Ai, W.Z., and Pincus, L.B

Type 2 innate lymphoid cells control eosinophil homeostasis.


Nussbaum JC, Van Dyken SJ, von Moltke J, Cheng LE, Mohapatra A, Molofsky AB, Thornton EE, Krummel MF, Chawla A, Liang HE, Locksley RM

Innate lymphoid type 2 cells sustain visceral adipose tissue eosinophils and alternatively activated macrophages.

The Journal of experimental medicine

Molofsky AB, Nussbaum JC, Liang HE, Van Dyken SJ, Cheng LE, Mohapatra A, Chawla A, Locksley RM

Two septic transfusion reactions presenting as transfusion-related acute lung injury from a split plateletpheresis unit.

Critical care medicine

Rollins MD, Molofsky AB, Nambiar A, Pandey S, Weiskopf RB, Toy P

Eosinophils sustain adipose alternatively activated macrophages associated with glucose homeostasis.

Science (New York, N.Y.)

Wu D, Molofsky AB, Liang HE, Ricardo-Gonzalez RR, Jouihan HA, Bando JK, Chawla A, Locksley RM

Inflammatory Immune Response to Cytosolic Flagellin Protects Mice from Legionella pneumophila Infection.

Michele S. Swanson, Brenda G. Byrne, Natalie W. Whitfield, Etsu T. Fuse, Kazuhiro Tateda, Ari B. Molofsky

Cytosolic recognition of flagellin by mouse macrophages restricts Legionella pneumophila infection.

The Journal of experimental medicine

Molofsky AB, Byrne BG, Whitfield NN, Madigan CA, Fuse ET, Tateda K, Swanson MS

The functions of Klarsicht and nuclear lamin in developmentally regulated nuclear migrations of photoreceptor cells in the Drosophila eye.

Molecular biology of the cell

Patterson K, Molofsky AB, Robinson C, Acosta S, Cater C, Fischer JA

Research Area: 
Adipocyte and Metabolism